I was searching for some information in the Internet and I am not sure how, but the Trung Sisters turned up. Briefly, these ladies were responsible for the first successful revolt from the Han Chinese in 40 CE.
These two sisters successfully led the Vietnamese revolt against the Han Chinese and they were the military rulers of Vietnam for three years, until the Chin ese under Ma Yuan came and defeated them.
The sisters were born into a wealthy Lac family and were well educated. Trung Trac’s husband was Thi Sach and was the Lac lord of Chu Dien in northern Vietnam. Su Ding was the Chinese governor of Jiaozhi province at the time, remembered for his cruelty and tyranny. One thing led to another the result of which was Trung Trac and her younger sister Trung Nhi stirred the locals up into a rebellion to avenge the killing of her husband. It began in the Red River delta and then spread to other Lac areas and non-Han people from an area stretching from Hepu to Rinan. Chinese settlements were overran, and Su Ding fled. The uprising gained the support of about sixty-five towns and settlements. Trưng Trac was proclaimed as the queen.
In AD 42, the Han emperor commissioned general Ma Yuan to suppress the rebellion with 32,000 men. The rebellion of the two sisters was defeated in the next year as Ma Yuan captured and decapitated Trưng Trac and Trưng Nhi, then sent their head to the Han court in Luoyang.
There is a procession each year in celebration of the Trung Sisters and they are always depicted riding an elephant.
Dexter Hoyos has taken a look at something that has very poor coverage, namely Carthage’s Other Wars. We are all aware of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome and to a lesser extent, Carthage’s attempts to expand into Sicily and the conflict that arose with Syracuse among others.
The popular image of Carthage is as a maritime, mercantile state that fought a couple of wars against Rome, eventually losing and setting Rome up to to be the only major power in the Mediterranean.
According to Timaeus the Sicilian Greek, Carthage was founded in the 38th year prior to the first Olympiad, which in modern terms dates the foundation around 814/13 BC. The city was, according to legend, founded by Dido, who was fleeing from the Tyrian King, Pygmalion. She travelled through Cyprus then on to North Africa. Her alternative name in the stories of the time is Elissa.
While there is not a great deal of Carthaginian text, with the exception of Hanno’s Periplus (sea voyage) in Greek translation and referring to the journey west of the Strait of Gibraltar and down Africa’s West coast, there is information in other sources and Hoyos refers to Herodotus, Aristotle, Diodorus of Sicily who referenced Ephorus, Timaeus of Sicily and Philistus. Pompeius Trogus wrote a history that survived to later times and was abbreviated in Justin’s works. Plutarch provided information on Carthage’s involvement in Sicily and Polybius translated Carthaginian texts of Carthage’s treaties with Rome.
The contents of the book are:
Sources of Knowledge
Greek and Latin Records
Carthage: city and state
Foundation and footprint
The Carthaginian republic
Trade and business
Merchants, landowners, commoners and slaves
Friends, neighbours and potential foes
Fleets and armies
The defences of Carthage
Early Wars: Malchus to ‘King’ Hamilcar
Malchus: fiction or fact?
Malchus: victories, revenge and ruin
The Magonids: ’empire’ builders?
The expedition of ‘king’ Hamilcar
The Revenge of Hannibal the Magonid
The aftermath of Himera
A new Sicilian war: the first expedition of Hannibal the Magonid
Carthage victorious, 406-05 BC
Carthage against Dionysius and Syracuse
Uneasy peace, 405-398
Himilco vs Dionysius
Mago vs Dionysius
Mago and Himilco against Dionysius
Last war with Dionysius
Carthage against Timoleon
Carthage and the turmoils of Sicily
The arrival of Timoleon
Sorting out sources
The enigma of Mago
The battle at the Crimisus
Gisco and peace
Carthage against Agathocles
The advent of Agathocles
Agathocles frustrating Carthage
Carthage at war with Agathocles
The destruction of Hamilcar
The destruction of Ophellas and Bomilcar
Agathocles fails in Africa, wins in Sicily
The end of the war
The Sicilian stalemate: Pyrrhus and Hiero
The woes of post-Agathoclean Sicily
The war with Pyrrhus
Hiero of Syracuse
Carthage at War in Africa and Spain
Libya: subjects and rebels
The Truceless War: origins and outbreak
Horrors of the Truceless War
Barcid Carthage’s Spanish empire
There is also a Concluding Chapter, List of Plates, Maps, Preface and Acknowledgements, Abbreviations and Reading, along with Endnotes and Index.
The writing style of Hoyos is quite easy to read and flows well. He examines the sources and secondary readings critically and well, although I did have some trouble locating some of his references (for example, Connolly (1981) is referenced in Carthage’s Navy’s endnotes but there is no reference to his works in the reading list (I could reasonably guess that we are referring to Connolly, Peter (1981), Greece and Rome at War, Macdonald Phoebus Ltd).
Having said that, the book is a solid piece of research into a little covered area of Carthaginian history. I have had an interest in Carthage since the mid-1970s but most of my previous reading was around the Punic Wars. This has opened an entire other area of interest to me in Carthaginian History.
Best of all, the book is currently on special at Pen and Sword – and it is well recommended.
We all know the Battle of Actium — Antony and Cleopatra’s final act against Octavian and the start of the Augustan Peace in Rome, albeit now with an Emperor. Professor Lee Fratantuono re-examines the ancient evidence and presents a compelling and solidly documented account of what took place in the waters off the promontory of Leucas in late August and early September of 31 B.C.
Rather than present a coherent story cross referencing different sources, Prof Fratantuono has adopted an approach when examining the battle of looking at the sources independently and then analyzing the evidence presented by them to draw his conclusions.
Fratantuono notes in the preface that his,
“interest in Actium has romance as its genesis: the twin lures of poetry and cinema, the poets of Augustan Rome and the cinematic depiction of the battle in Mankiewicz’s 1963 Cleopatra, a film that despite is numerous problems of both film quality and historical accuracy, was a contributing factor to [his] early interest in antiquity”
He goes on later to note that the methodology used in this study “will be to examine closely the surviving literary attestation of the naval conflict at Actium, with a view to reconstruction and analysis of what might have happened”.
This is the approach he takes with the first part of the book looking at Greek Historical Sources. These are:
the Evidence of Plutarch
The Lost Appian
The Evidence of Dio Cassius
The Evidence of Josephus
The Second Part deals with Roman Historical Sources
Lost Roman Sources
Florus’ and Eutropius’ Detached Accounts
The Evidence of Orosius
The Third Part looks at Actium in Verse
The Shield of Aeneas
Horace’s Epodes — The Earliest Evidence?
Horace’s Cleopatra Ode
The Evidence of Elegy: Propertius
The Allegorized Actium
The Lost Carmen de Bello Aegyptiaco/Atiaco
Part Four then is Analyzing the Evidence
So What Really Happened?
The Birth of a Romantic Legend
Part Five examines the Aftermath
‘Death Comes in the End’
The book finishes with an Afterword looking at Actium and Roman Naval Practice.
There is, as well, a preface and introduction as well as bibliography, index, endnotes and further reading. There are also a couple of maps and battle dispositions as well.
All-in-all I enjoyed reading this, especially as it introduced me to some areas I had managed to avoid all these years, namely the literary and poetic evidence – I guess there is more than just Plutarch and Dio Cassius.
Prof Fratantuono concludes at the end that Antony intended to fight and fight he did at Actium. He also discusses the involvement of the Egyptian vessels and concludes that they must have fought that day as well, either as part of the main battle or during the breakout at the end of the day. Prof Fratantuono is certain that Antony was planning on winning the battle that day, and so he is at odds with the views of the previous writer’s on the battle who suggested that Antony and Cleopatra always intended flight, or that they intended to launch a withdrawal that could lead to a strategic victory.
Antony and Cleopatra were planning on winning that day. The withdrawal at the end of the day, tactical or not, was a loss. The fleet remaining would have surrendered quickly and land forces in Greece and the East would also have surrendered to Octavian (and did).
Prof Fratantuono also hazards some estimates of the number of ships involved in the battle by looking at the numbers given in Plutarch, Florus and Orosius. Plutarch, for example, estimated that Antony and Cleopatra had a fleet of 500 ships to Octavian’s 250. Orosius however estimated the Antonian fleet at 200 ships. There were 60 Egyptian vessels, which if added to Florus’ estimate for Antony’s fleet of 170 ships gives a total of 230 ships. Similar numerical discord exists between Plutarch’s estimate of Octavian’s fleet of 250 vessels and Florus’ estimate of 400 ships. There is some discussion on whether these are beaked vessels only but Prof Fratantuono concludes around 250 vessels for Octavian against 230 in the fleet of Antony and Cleopatra would seem a reasonable estimate. This seems a workable estimate — if outnumbered 2:1 it would be unlikely that Antony would give battle, similarly with Octavian.
The Battle of Actium 31 BC — War for the World was published by Pen & Sword Military on 31 May 2016 (ISBN: 9781473847149) and consists of 194 pages.
I found Prof Fratantuono’s writing style easy to read and his discussion is, in my opinion, a good discourse of this topic. It now sits on my bookshelf with other ancient naval tomes.
I received a nice comment on a recent article in Thomo’s Hole so went and had a look at that bloggers blog. The blog is Subli. The author is Rosalinda and she is writing about the the Philippines – its history, its culture, and its people.
Olivier van Noort sailed into the Pacific and on to the Philippines during the Eighty Years’ War between the United Provinces and Spain. He was one of many captains who fought the Spanish in these waters (and at the entrance to Manila Bay as well) with Galleons. The Spanish were similarly equipped with Galleons and some Galleys. I need to do a lot more research on the vessels involved as this particular war and location is not within my usual area of reading.
The area of modern Botolan (in the province of Zambales) was known in those days as Playa Honda. There were three known minor conflicts during the Eighty Years’ War between the United Provinces and Spain held in Playa Honda in the Philippines. All the battles were won by the Spanish. The first battle occurred in 1610. The second, the most famous, took place in 1617. The third battle took place in 1624.
Interest piqued, now for some bright, shiny searching! Oh, and do stop in to Subli, there is some interesting posts in that blog, particularly about early Philippine history.
Current reading is from the series, History of Terror. This covers the period of the Allies liberation of the Philippines, and Manila in Particular.
When the Japanese invaded, the then colonial masters, the Americans, had declared Manila an open city to prevent damage and human casualties.
When the Americans along with support from local guerrillas moved on Manila to liberate it, the Japanese commander, Yamashita, ordered Manila to be fiercely defended. What followed was a liberation, almost building by building. However it was the Japanese treatment of the local population that was most horrific with estimates of 100,000 civilians being slaughtered. There is no true count however and other estimates are higher.
Review to follow when I finish reading this book. It is available from Pen & Sword however if your curiosity is already peaked.
I received a heavy tome from Pen and Sword books recently and this one is a cracker. It is definitely heavy, weighing in at 1.2kgs and I think the weight is the paper stock used in printing this largely colour work. The basis of this book is a look at ancient battlefields and battles in and around Greece with reference to modern topography. All the battles covered are illustrated with a location map, satellite photographs of the area, many from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), along with any relevant ground based photographs from the authors’ collection.
The USGS maps have battlefield deployments superimposed over the them. As Dr Matthew A. Sears and Dr C. Jacob Butera note in the book’s preface, “This is a book designed for the traveller to Greece, whether the member of a tour group, the independent adventurer, or the curious scholar.” I believe that if one carries this book on tour, your excess baggage charges will increase. However if you have an interest in Ancient Battles and Battlefields or are simply curious to maximise the interesting points from a tour, then this book is worth the effort to lug around.
The book, Battles and Battlefields of Ancient Greece – A Guide to Their History, Topography and Archaeology, by C. Jacob Butera and Matthew A. Sears has been published by Pen & Sword Military. It contains 385 pages, its ISBN is 9781783831869 and it was published on 13 May 2019. It is a cracker of a volume and I have had difficulty putting it down. The writing style of the authors is readable to all and while the subject is wide reaching, the slicing and dicing of their topic has been skilfully performed.
The Introduction discusses the various periods covered by the book with explanations of the Phalanx style and type of warfare, and the armies that used them. It does not restrict itself to simply land battles either but includes some naval warfare – two notable ancient naval battles in particular. The Introduction then discusses briefly Ancient Greek and Roman Warfare, splitting the introduction into:
The Archaic and Classical Periods
The Hoplite Phalanx
Cavalry and Light-Armed Infantry
Greek Naval Warfare
The Hellenistic Period and Roman Middle Republic
The Macedonian Army
The Roman Manipular Legion
Phalanx vs Legion
The End of the Roman Republic
The Roman Army of the Late Republic
Roman Naval Warfare
There are photos from various museums and collections illustrating items through there as well with items such as, for example, the Lenormant Relief from the acropolis Museum depicting a trireme and its rowers. This section is then concluded with a list of Further Reading covering the topics – and unlike many book lists and bibliographies, this comes with comments. So, for example, the following entry:
Kagan, D., and Viggiano, G.F. (eds), Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece (Princeton, 2013). — The best resource on the debate surrounding the nature of hoplite warfare, with contributions from the leading voices in the debate
Other entries are similarly marked.
The Book is then divided into four main parts with each part covering three to seven battles for that geographic area:
Athens and Attica
The Battle of Marathon, 490 BCE
The Battle of Salamis, 480 BCE
The Battle of Piraeus/Mounichia, 403 BCE
Boeotia and Central Greece
The Battle of Thermopylae, 480 BCE
The Battle of Artemisium, 480 BCE
The Battle of Plataea, 479 BCE
The Battle of Delium, 424 BCE
The Battle of Coronea, 394 BCE
The Battle of Leuctra, 371 BCE
The Battles of Chaeronea, 338 and 86 BCE
The Battle of Amphipolis, 422 BCE
The Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 BCE
The Battle of Pydna, 168 BCE
The Battle of Pharsalus, 48 BCE
The Battle of Philippi, 42 BCE
The Peloponnese and Western Greece
The Battles of Naupactus, 429 BCE
The Battle of Pylos, 425 BCE
The Battles of Mantinea, 418 and 362 BCE
The Battle of the Nemea River, 394 BCE
The Battle of Actium, 31 BCE
Each of the battle chapters is then divided into:
General Map of the Battle Location on the Chapter facing page
Introduction — brief description of the location and the events around the battle
Directions to the Site — how to get there and landmarks
Historical Outline of the Battle — details of the battle from the primary sources and archeological studies including the USGS maps of the area of the battle with deployments and movements superimposed
The Battle Site Today — what the site looks like today including photographs of items of interest
Further Reading — this section is broken up into two main areas – Historical Sources, and Modern Sources with the Modern Sources including books and articles
Lastly the book contains a useful index.
Each chapter is about 15 to 20 pages long, a perfect length for reading over a cup of coffee or when there is an hour or so spare. With the references added however, the temptation is to read the chapter then read back in the primary sources but with a greater understanding of the topography of the battle.
The authors are both academics, Dr C. Jacob Butera is an assistant professor of Classics at the University of North Carolina at Asheville and Dr Matthew A. Sears is an associate professor of Classics and Ancient History at the University of New Brunswick in Canada.
This is a book is simply great. If you ever wanted a general reference for the battlefields of Ancient Greece, this is the one. It is a bonus that it is clearly written and well illustrated with maps, satellite photographs and photographs of items of interest remaining on the battlefield, and where each chapter identifies the primary sources for the battle as well as modern source material. Well recommended. It is also available in digital form which does lighten the physical load a little.
Like volume I, this is a reprint of a book first published by Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, in 1994 the picked up by Conway Maritime Press in 2002. It was reprinted again in April 2005 by Conway’s. This volume deals with sixteen Vosper MTB designs, and the US 70′, 77′ and 80′ Elco designs.
Also, as with Volume 1, there are copies of volume 2 from 2002 available still, new, for US $72.40 at various outlets.
Vosper was established as a company in 1871. They became famous for the unstepped planing hull-form they developed which was the basis of their Motor Torpedo Boats (MTB) and Motor Gun Boats (MGB) for the Royal Navy in World War II. The original boats had a length of 68 feet and were based upon the prototype MTB 102, which survives to this day as a museum piece.
Vosper’s designs were copied by many, especially given the speeds they acheived with their planing hulls. Apart from MTBs and MGBs, Vosper also built high speed launches for the the Royal Air Force for the rescue of air crew who ditched into the sea.
Vospers were not only built in the United Kingdom but also in the United States under license.
The illustration here are some of the vessels illustrated with differing camouflage designs are taken from the book. Apologies for the quality, I photographed with my tablet and one hand and it is a heavy tome.
As with the previous volume, the detail, drawings, plans and photographs in this book are super. Al Ross had a reputation as a very fine draughtsman and it shows in his drawings throughout the volume. Lambert covers the details of the vessels, the equipment that was present on the vessels, selected weapon systems and additional data.
The table of contents, apart from the usual sections of Foreword, Preface, Abbreviations and the like covers:
Elco – a short history
Vosper’s private venture (MTB 102) and Bloodhound
Vosper MTB designs 1938-39
The Vosper 45ft MTB Design
Vosper designs 1940
Vosper designs 1941
Vosper designs 1942
Vosper designs 1943-45
The Elco 70ft PT
The Elco 77ft PT
The Elco 80ft PT
The Packard 4M-2500 marine engine
Selected weapons systems (0.5in Vickers machine guns; 20mm Oerlikons (single and twin); 9mm Lanchester machine carbine; 18in and 21in torpedo tubes; PT torpedo armament and the Dewandre turret)
Additional data covering US 20mm, 37mm and 40mm mounts and guns; Rocket launchers; Development of bridge and wheelhouse during the Second World War; Notes on operating the Royal Navy Packard engines; Free French Vosper MTBs; The Vosper survivors; and Restored Elco PT 617.
As with the first volume, the writing in the book is clear an easy to both follow and understand. It has been fascinating to read about these vessels, so much so that I am looking for similar works on Axis boats. It is a shame that the third volume mooted back in the 1990s never eventuated as it would have dealt with the British Power Boat 70ft MTBs and MGBs which were also very successful boats.
This also is a must have book for anyone interested in coastal warfare and a great companion to Volume 1. There is nothing I can think of that is really missing from this coverage. Best, along with volume 1, it is on special at the moment (23 July 2019) at Pen and Sword.
Allied Coastal Forces of World War II – Volume I, written by John Lambert and Al Ross deals with Fairmile Designs and the US Submarine Chasers. It was published on 12 December 2018 by Seaforth Publishing, an imprint of Pen and Sword Books, is 256 pages long and has ISBN: 9781526744494*(see below).
I do love naval history and I have a particular interest in small boats (and big ships and all in between truth be told). This volume deals with some of my favourite vessels, the Fairmiles.
Fairmile Marine was a British boat building company founded in 1939 by the car manufacturer Noel Macklin using his garage at Cobham Fairmile in Surrey for manufacturing assembly. His company was run as an agency of the Admiralty, the company carrying out business without turning a profit, the staff being in effect part of the civil service.
His first design was the Fairmile A Motor Launch (ML) but the most ubiquitous of the Fairmiles was the Fairmile B ML. Over 600 of these were built over the period 1940 to 1945. Originally designed as submarine chasers the Motor Launches were fitted with ASDIC. Later versions of the Fairmiles (the C, D and F versions) were fitted out as gunboats with the Ds also rigged as Motor Torpedo Boats.
Coastal naval warfare in both the North Sea and the Mediterranean were fiercely fought skirmishes between the Allied MLs, MGBs and MTBs and the Axis E-Boats, R-Boats, MAS boats and the like. The Fairmile boats made up a considerable portion of Coastal Command and fought in all theatres.
The illustration here are some of the vessels illustrated with differing camouflage designs are taken from the book. Apologies for the quality, I photographed with my tablet and one hand and it is a heavy tome.
The detail, drawings, plans and photographs in this book are super. The authors cover the details of the vessels, the equipment that was present on the vessels, selected weapon systems and additional data, including the fate of most of the vessels. For example, we can see the builder, when a vessel was completed and its fate. In the case of ML 400, this vessel was built in New Zealand and completed on 18 November 1942. It served in the RNZN where it sailed as HMNZS Kahu, being sold in 1947 and sailing then as the Dolphin.
The US Submarine Chasers are covered as well, although not in as great a detail.
The table of contents, apart from the usual sections of Forewards, Authors Notes, Prefaces, Abbreviations and the like covers:
The Fairmile company
The Fairmile B ML
The Canadian Fairmile B ML
The Fairmile C motor gunboat
The Fairmile D MTB/MGB
The Fairmile F MGB
The Fairmile H Landing Craft
The SC 497 class 110 ft sub chaser
Depth Charges and anti-submarine equipment
British Coastal Forces radar
British Coastal Forces camouflage
Engines and engineering
Weapons systems (depth charge projectors, flares, machine guns, 1- and 2-pounder guns, 4.5in guns and the like
The extensive appendices include:
Schedule of British Builders
Fairmile production analysis Yard analysis Consumption of major materials
all in all, 12 appendices.
The writing in the book is clear an easy to both follow and understand. Best, most of the book is in shorter chapters making it easier to read and follow over shorter reading sessions. I have learnt so much from this work that I am really itching to start on their volume 2 which covers perhaps the most famous of the Allied coastal vessels, the Vosper MTBs and US Elcos. There is a third volume being prepared covering the British Power Boat 70ft MTBs and MGBs which were very successful boats.
This really is a must have book for anyone interested in coastal warfare. There is nothing I can think of that is really missing from this coverage. Best, it is on special at the moment (20 July 2019) at Pen and Sword.
* Please note the following (21 July 2019):
This work was originally published in 1994. in the US it was published by the Naval Institute Press (and I am guessing by Conway’s in the UK). In 2005 it was reprinted and published by Conway’s in the UK (and I am guessing that the Naval Institute Press may well have republished then too). I have not seen either of those editions so I can’t comment on any change in content in this edition. I can, however, note that a new copy of the 1994 version is selling on Amazon for US $225 dollars and the 2005 version new for US $165.60. The £32.00 current version from Pen and Sword therefore looks good value by comparison.
I should also note that unfortunately, the third volume covering the British Power Boat 70ft MTBs and MGBs was never published.
So every so often an email turns up in my inbox from Amazon offering me a publication from Pen and Sword or other publisher for $1.04 in Kindle format.
This is wonderful as it allows me to grab some titles I would not normally grab in hard copy due to cost, space limitations or their being out of print.
Even those books with lavish illustrations are OK to read on a 10-inch tablet and have the advantage of being able to be carted around with me much more easily than the printed word – well the word printed on paper.
There is a down side to this however. Once you have selected a book for $1.04, Amazon will then make other recommendations of related titles also at low prices for Kindle versions.
Still, 8 books for about $10.00 (520 pesos) is excellent value, except for the interruption to my painting time and the reading of hard copy books piling up on my table.
At the prices charged, even if I think the book is poor value, with the price, it is good value!
I will admit, I am enjoying Graves’ American Siberian Adventure and there is a certain pleasure in being able to whip out the tablet at lunch and browse the The Wargaming Compendium over a bowl of noodles.
A YouTube video turned up in my “Recommended Viewing” box the other day so I viewed it. It basically covered the early days of wargaming and in particular wargame figure manufacturing. I had pause to think then about my early days of wargaming and what was available then. I started gaming in the early 1970s I think. I can’t recall the exact date and time but I am certain it was after I left school and had cash in my pocket – that would have been 1972 for being out of school but I guess 1975 when there was cash in the pocket. So, around that time, a mate, Jeffrey, called and said, “come around home and let’s have a wargame?”
“Great” says I, “er, what’s a wargame?”.
Rolled up to Jeff’s and he had set up, on a Masonite board, Plasticine hills and a number of Airfix Union and Confederate soldiers and a copy of Donald Featherstone’s War Games. Jeff took the Confederates and whupped my boys good! It was great fun.
The following week we played again, this time Airfix Romans and Ancient Britons (oh how good those Roman Chariots looked). Jeff took the Romans and I the Britons. Let’s just say that the result was Boudicca’s revenge! Both games were probably the most fun I had playing in the early years. Simple rules, two people who did not know enough about the rules or the history to argue the finer points and unpainted plastic figures on the table.
Later we became more mainstream and started frequenting a shop, Models and Figurines, firstly at Naremburn in Sydney and later in Crows Nest where it eventually changed its name to the Tin Soldier.
In those heady days of pioneering wargames in the 1970s (back then it was “War Games” now we refer to “wargames” regardless of the failure of spell checkers to recognize the new fangled spelling from world wide usage) we were somewhat restricted in the figures available. Leaving aside the “flats” (German manufactured historical figures, moulded as flat figures), at the start there was HO/OO/20mm or 1/76 scale (Airfix) and 25mm size figures. The main suppliers we had access to at the start were Airfix (plastic figures and the subject of much conversion work); Hinchliffe (Frank Hinchliffe and designer and wargame figure painter extraordinaire, Peter Gilder); Lamming Miniature (from Bill Lamming); and Minifigs (owner Neville Dickinson and designer Dick Higgs). The clip below shows a news piece from around the mid to late 1980s I think about the setup of Miniature Figurines, the production of figures and wargaming in general. Worth a look for the history of it all.