Napoleon’s Waterloo Army, Uniforms and Equipment — Review

My goodness, where to start with this book. Firstly, it is a heavy tome, weighing in at 1.86 kgs so after sitting with it in the lap and reading through it, it does get a little uncomfortable. This is definitely a book for reading at the desk, which has the added advantage of making it easier to take notes as you do read through it, you will mostly likely refer to the information jam-packed in the book if researching or looking for some specific information on a French regiment present at Waterloo.

Napoleon’s Waterloo Army — Uniforms and Equipment by Paul L Dawson is published by Frontline Books. It was published on 2 October 2019, contains 696 pages of information and 250 illustrations on the Napoleon’s Waterloo Army (ISBN: 9781526705280).

Paul Dawson is an historian and author who has specialised in the Napoleonic Wars, writing about the French Army, mostly around the time of Waterloo. His other volumes with Frontline include:

  • Battle for Paris 1815
  • Marshal Ney At Quatre Bras
  • Napoleon and Grouchy
  • Waterloo: The Truth At Last
  • Napoleon’s Imperial Guard Uniforms and Equipment
  • Napoleon’s Imperial Guard Uniforms and Equipment

The volume on “Napoleon’s Waterloo Army” to some extent extends the volume “Waterloo: The Truth At Last” and covers the troops that fought at Ligny, Quatre-Bras and Waterloo. The author has based his research and writing on thousands of pages of French archival documents and translations. The written information is backed by many photographs of original artefacts. The photographs have been supplemented with many colour illustrations and paintings by Keith Rocco, well known to many military historians, wargamers and modellers. This book is the most complete study of Napoleon’s field army of 1815 that I have seen.

There are 23 Chapters and an Appendix, as well as Bibliography and Endnotes, Introduction, Acknowledgement and Foreward in this book. In addition, from page 427 to 447 there are 21 pages of Keith Rocco Paintings covering various troop types within the French army. I keep turning back to those pages and looking again and again at those paintings.  The rest of the book is structured into the following chapters:

  1. Clothing the Army
  2. Remounting the Cavalry
  3. The Armée du Nord
  4. Logistics
  5. Headquarters Staff
  6. 1st Corps
  7. 2nd Corps
  8. 6th Corps
  9. 1st Cavalry Division
  10. 2nd Cavalry Division
  11. 3rd Cavalry Division
  12. 5th Cavalry Division
  13. 3rd Cavalry Corps
  14. 4th Cavalry Corps
  15. Support Troops
  16. Imperial Guard Heavy Cavalry Brigade
  17. Guard Light Cavalry Brigade
  18. Young Guard Cavalry
  19. Guard Infantry
  20. The Young Guard
  21. The Artillery and Support Troops
  22. Clothing and Equipment of Napoleon’s Last Army
  23. What Happened to the Men?

The Appendix deals with the 1815 Dress Regulations.

To write this book, Dawson has delved into the:

  • National Archives, Kew, London
  • Archives Nationales, Paris
  • Service Historique Armée du Terre, Paris
  • Personal record boxes of a number of personalities of the time
  • Officer’s records
  • Correspondence Hundred Days
  • Prisoners of War
  • Imperial Guard regimental boxes
  • Line infantry regimental record boxes
  • Light infantry regimental record boxes
  • Line cavalry regimental boxes
  • Artillery record boxes
  • Imperial Guard regimental muster lists
  • Line and light infantry regimental muster lists
  • Line cavalry regimental muster lists
  • Line artillery regimental muster lists

along with more recent works and digital sources.

The volume of research that is in this book is staggering and the information provided on the clothing and equipment of the armies appears quite complete with reasonable assumptions and reasoning behind the assumptions where necessary.

Taking the first chapter, “Clothing the Army” as an example, Dawson discusses the cost of clothing the existing army, as well as the additional costs for the new regiments. He looks at the material used for various items on uniform, the colour of those materials, arguing colour differences. For example, he examples a sample of Aurore cloth from 1823 noting that “Aurore has been shown by many artists to be a shade of yellow, when in fact it is a vivid shade of dark orange”. A colour photo of the cloth is shown as well. He looks at all the cloth used for various items of clothing, and at the end of the chapter, I knew more about the cloth used in the Armée du Nord than I ever thought I would learn in my lifetime.

If you are at all interested in the Armée du Nord uniforms and equipment, then this book is an indispensable addition and an absolute must to be added to your bookshelf. Very highly recommended.

Bavarian Army – Napoleonic Period

Note – I started writing this on October 22, 2010. I guess this is a typical wargaming project, one that starts with a rush then slips to a back shelf as something new and shiny flashes past only to have the interest rekindled when looking at old notes. Of course, I have a number of other projects on the go currently that will prevent the Bavarians leaping t the top of the pile but soon (which in wargaming term could mean sometime in the next 27 years!

Bavarian Infantry from Baccus 6mm (https://baccus6mm.com/catalogue/Napoleonics/Bavarian/)

In my Napoleonic painting and wargaming project, I have decided to concentrate essentially on the Germans – the Prussians and the Confederation of the Rhine along with the Duchy of Warsaw for additional flavour and colour (yes, the Duchy of Warsaw is Polish but is attractive as an ally/opponent). The Bavarians contributed the largest part of the forces of the Confederation of the Rhine as one of the founding members of the confederation in 1806. They came to Napoleons side in the wars after the Austrian general Mack invaded Bavaria as part of the Ulm campaign.

Bavarian chevaux leger from Baccus 6mm (https://baccus6mm.com/catalogue/Napoleonics/Bavarian/)

It occurred to me at the time, and has me thinking again about the Bavarians, I have a feeling that the usual wargamer’s megalomania will start to surface as we want to increase the size of what we are doing to recreate bigger and bigger things. The Battle of Ulm comes to mind as one of those things to recreate. Basically it was the culmination of skirmishes and manoeuvring over a period between he French and the Austrians. That wonderful mine of misinformation, Wikipedia, has an article on the Battle of Ulm. Of course, to do that I would need to model around 150,000 French soldiers in the French army at the time as well as about 75,000 under the command of Mack, the Austrian army facing them. To make it interesting, I could add the Russians that were marching to join up with the Austrians. I then start to think about the Battle of Leipzig – see what I mean about megalomania?

I digress. The Bavarian Army was part of the Confederation of the Rhine. In fact, prior to the formation of the Confederation, Bavaria was an Electorate (a term I will explain elsewhere and at another time, probably about the time the 30 Years War starts to intrigue me again). Sorry, more digression. At the time the Confederation of the Rhine was formed Bavaria became a kingdom and was a founding member of the Confederation. I’ve listed the members in a previous post.

Bavarian artillery from Baccus 6mm (https://baccus6mm.com/catalogue/Napoleonics/Bavarian/)

So, the Bavarians were something to add to my 6mm collection. The nice thing about the Bavarians is that they fought together as a single group, for example being VI Corps of the Grande Armee in 1812. Whilst they had Bavarian commanders, perhaps the most famous and successful Bavarian commander was the French marshal, Gouvion St Cyr. The Bavarians sent around 33,000 troops with Napoleon in the invasion of Russia, around 4,000 returned. The Bavarian corps of 1812 therefore seemed the best to model as part of my project.

The Organisation of the VI Corps at the time is shown below. The Bavarian Order of Battle 1809-12 reflects that Organisation fairly closely, without the other German troops. In Germany in 1809 its Commander was Marshall Lefebvre, the Duke of Danzig. Initially, in Germany in VII Corps the Commander was Colonel-General de Cuirassiers, Laurent, Marquis de Gouvion St-Cyr who was perhaps the best of the commanders of the Bavarians.

Type Battalions Grade Name Coats Facing Colours
Commander-in-Chief: General de division G. St. Cyr
Chief of General Staff: Colonel d’Albignac
Commander of Artillery: Colonel de Colonge
First Division
Commander: General von Deroy
Staff Officer: Major von Gravenreuth
1st Brigade: Generalmajor von Siebein
Light Infantry 1 Regular Tyrolean Chasseurs Green Blue
Line Infantry 2 Elite 1st Line Infantry “Liebe” Blue Red
Line Infantry 2 Regular 2nd Line Infantry “Kronprinz” Blue Red
2nd Brigade Generalmajor von Raglovich
Light Infantry 1 Regular 4th Light Infantry “Theobald” Green Black/Red
Line Infantry 1 Regular 4th Line Infantry “Salern” Blue Yellow
Line Infantry 1 Regular 11th Line Infantry Blue Green
3rd Brigade Generalmajor Graf Richberg
Light Infantry 1 Regular 4th Light Infantry “Theobald” Green Black/Red
Line Infantry 2 Regular 3rd Line Infantry “Prinz Karl” Blue Red
Line Infantry 2 Regular 9th Line Infantry “Graf von Ysenburg” Blue Red
Cavalry Brigade Generalmajor Graf Seydewitz
Bavarian Dragoons 1 Light Cav 1st Dragoons White
Bavarian Chevaux-Legere 1 Light Cav 1st Chevaux-Legere Kronprinz Green
Bavarian Chevaux-Legere 1 Light Cav Green
Artillery Oberstlieutenant Freiherr von Lamey
Bavarian Foot Battery Regular 2nd Line Battery – 6 medium guns, 2 Howitzers Dark Blue
Bavarian Heavy Foot Battery Regular 4th Line Battery – 6 heavy guns, 2 Howitzers Dark Blue
Second Division
Commander: General der Kavallerie Graf von Wrede
Staff Officer: Oberst von Comeau
1st Brigade: Generalmajor von Vincenti
Light Infantry 2 Regular 2nd Light Infantry “Wrede” Green Red
Line Infantry 3 Regular 7th Line Infantry “Lowenstein” Blue Pink
2nd Brigade: Generalmajor von Hugel
German Jägers 1 Crack Freiwillige Jägers: can field as Rifle armed skirmishers Green Blue
Guard Grenadiers 1 Crack Wurttemberg: Fusse Garde Dark Blue Black
Line Infantry 2 Regular Wurttemberg: Prinz Paul Regiment Dark Blue Yellow
Line Infantry 2 Regular Anhalt-Lippe Contingents of 5th C. Rhine Regt. Green/ White Pink/ Green
3rd Brigade: Generalmajor Graf Minucci
Light Infantry 2 Regular 6th Light Infantry “Taxis” Green Red/ yellow
Line Infantry 3 Regular 13th Line Blue Black
Line Infantry 2 Regular 8th Line Infantry “Herzog Pius” Blue Yellow
Artillery Brigade: Oberstlieutenant von Lamy
Bavarian Foot Battery Regular 5th Line Battery – 6 medium guns Dark Blue
Bavarian Foot Battery Regular 8th Line Battery (can field as 1st Light Battery horse artillery instead) Dark Blue
Cavalry Brigade: Generalmajor von Preysing – poor
German Cuirassier 1 Regular/ Crack “Prinz Karl” Blue
German Hussars 1 Regular/ Crack 1st Bavarian Hussars Blue
German Uhlans 1 Regukar/Crack Uhlanen Green
German Horse Artillery Regular 1st Light Battery
German Horse Artillery Regular 2nd Light Battery

Notes:

  • I was also thinking about the Battle of Leipzig and started to build II Corps of the Prussian Army present at that battle – a perfect opposition for VII Corps of the Grande Armee
  • Cavalry and Artillery Brigades can form separate divisions or detached brigades
  • No Grand Battery
  • If I start using FOB rules, any Line Infantry can be reclassified as Raw
  • The Bavarian Infantry are famous for both their cornflower blue coats as well as their rappenhaulms
  • This post was originally written when I was considering using various wargame rules, most of the names of which I can no longer recall but where Principles of War was one
  • I am going to base on 60mm x 30mm bases using 6mm figures
  • and lastly, this is a plan for when I move from the small Manila apartment to something a little larger, that will permit me something like a 6′ x 4′ (1.8m x 1.2m) table to play on

Anniversary of Napoleon’s Death – Free eBook Giveaway – Amazon.com

Update: The links in this post refer to the US based amazon.com rather than the previous post which referred to those using amazon.co.uk.

The 5th of May 1821 was the date of Napoleon’s death on St Helena. As many of you will know, I often review books from Pen and Sword books (among others). To coincide with this anniversary Pen and Sword will be giving away four eBooks for free from Amazon.

Do check one click purchase carefully as the last link may not be getting to the correct version.

1815: The Waterloo Campaign Vol I:
https://www.amazon.com/Waterloo-Camp…/…/ref=sr_1_fkmrnull_1…

In Napoleon’s Shadow:
https://www.amazon.com/Napoleons-Shadow-Louis…/…/ref=sr_1_1…

Letters from the Battle of Waterloo:
https://www.amazon.com/Letters-Battle-Waterlo…/…/ref=sr_1_1…

With Eagles to Glory (will be uploaded to Amazon in a few days- check back):

https://www.amazon.com/Eagles-Glory-Napole…/…/ref=mt_kindle…

Thanks to Pen and Sword Marketing Lead, Rosie Crofts for the free stuff and great customer service.
https://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/

Anyone looking for the UK links check the previous post (below).

Anniversary of Napoleon’s Death – Free eBook Giveaway

Update: unfortunately this offer appears to be only available for Amazon customers in the United Kingdom. Those of us with addresses outside the UK are redirected to Amazon.com where this offer is not available. My apologies but I did not know this at the time of releasing this post.

The 5th of May 1821 was the date of Napoleon’s death on St Helena. As many of you will know, I often review books from Pen and Sword books (among others). To coincide with this anniversary Pen and Sword will be giving away four eBooks for free from Amazon.

It’s not often anyone gives away eBooks for free, so I am happy to recommend these to you.  Here’s the four eBooks that will be free on the day and the Amazon link to download the titles. They will be in KIndle format. Do take advantage of this giveaway, I certainly will be (as if I didn’t have enough to read already).

1815: The Waterloo Campaign Vol I: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Waterloo-Campaign-1815-Ligny-Quatre-ebook/dp/B072MK79YX/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1556703709&sr=8-1

In Napoleon’s Shadow: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Napoleons-Shadow-Louis-Joseph-Marchand-1811-1821-ebook/dp/B07G94M6MW/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1556704288&sr=8-1

Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Letters-Battle-Waterloo-Unpublished-Correspondence-ebook/dp/B07QHM4KM2/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1556704324&sr=8-1

With Eagles to Glory (will be uploaded to Amazon shortly): https://www.amazon.co.uk/Eagles-Glory-Napoleon-German-Campaign/dp/1848325827/ref=sr_1_1?crid=43RWJ75IQ5I4&keywords=with+eagles+to+glory&qid=1556704360&s=gateway&sprefix=with+eagles%2Caps%2C132&sr=8-1

My only fear is that should I settle in to read 1815: The Waterloo Campaign Vol I dealing with Ligny and Quatre Bras, I will be wanting to purchase Vol II.

Go on, download and enjoy some Napoleonic reading but remember this is for Sunday 5 May (I guess UK Summer Time).

A Parcel from Baccus – 6mm Napoleonics – Dutch-Belgian and Brunswick

I received some Napoleonic reinforcements recently and I now how wargamers like to live vicasiously, looking at others toys so here I the unpacking of the Baccus 6mm reinforcements – Dutch Belgians along with a few Brunswickers. Just what I needed, more figures in the lead pile. At this rate I will live forever.

Prussians – 1813-1815

As I have been suffering a painting block, I thought I would do some mundane things like sorting and tidying over the weekend to see if that helped me over the block. The Prussian project I started nine years ago seemed like a good place to start. I had brought the figures from Australia to Manila packed rather well as it turned out – they survived the trip in Hold Baggage well. The figures painted and based are below.

Those still requiring the bases to be finished are included the following image.

The full force thus far – including those with part finished bases

So far looking at the painted figures, while the infantry uniforms are a Prussian Blue, it appears almost black here. I am thinking I will need to lighten them up a little.

I am happy with the artillery and cavalry colours however.

Once I started unpacking the unpainted figures, I quickly got a sense of the size of this project as in total, when completed, the force will consist of:

  • 33 Infantry Bases (792 figures)
  • 14 Cavalry Bases (140 figures)
  • 12 Artillery Bases (12 guns, 12 limbers and 60 crew)
All the unpainted Prussians in the box now. Time to get cracking

I’m building the army with Heroics and Ros figures. H&R do a Prussian musketeer which I am using for the musketeers and fusiliers, the stovepipe British for the reserve infantry and then the Landwehr figures for the Landwehr. That seems to provide enough variety between the figures.

The Landwehr will be in dark blue coats, the same as the regulars, but some will be in white trousers, some in grey. Perhaps even in a couple of battalions I’ll mix the trousers in the battalion. I haven’t thought that far in yet.

The reserve infantry (British in stovepipe shako) look the part, especially compared to some of the images from the time. The only minor quibble I have with the detail is that the Brits have a backpack and the almost ubiquitous Prussian blanket roll is missing. To be fair to myself however, I have seen a picture of a Prussian reserve infantry figure like that – with pack and sans blanket. Colour of the Reserve Infantry will be a mix of grey and blue uniforms, and maybe even the odd red battalion – again, I am still researching that.

 

Yep, Another New Project

The problem with being distracted from current wargaming projects into new projects is that it never stops at one. You get a new interest, start looking around at rules for that interest then get distracted again. Next thing you know you you have three or four more projects in mind.

I was looking at rules for the Greek project I mentioned in the last post here and next thing I knew I was looking at Dadi&Piombo’s Basic Impetus Expansion, Basic Battles.

Basic Battles is an expansion on the Basic Impetus system, moving that system from the Renaissance to the Colonial Wars periods. This includes Napoleonics and I just happen to have a couple of 6mm Napoleonic Armies waiting in the lead pile – only the 1814 Prussians have made it (briefly) to the painting queue.

1st Battalion, West Prussians

Of course, Dadi&Piombo note in the introduction to the rules:

This is an experimental set to expand on Basic Impetus 2.0 rules for later periods, up to Colonial warfare, where one Unit roughly represents one brigade. This set also covers Napoleonics, though a more detailed and tactical ruleset is under development for this period. Basic Impetus 2 can be purchased through www.dadiepiombo.com or digitally through Wargame Vault: www.wargamevault.com/product/200518/Basic-Impetus-2 Available in English, French and Spanish.

Prussian Horse Artillery – both limbered and unlimbered

Naturally I want to use them for Napoleonics. I figure that if I work to the basic system in Baccus’ General de division or Marechal d’Empire rules, use the armies (when painted) with either the Baccus rules or Basic Battles, when the Impetus Napoleonic Rules come along I’m looking sweet.

The armies I have available for this are:

  • 1814 Prussians – Heroics and Ros figures
  • Duchy or Warsaw – Adler Miniatures
  • Confederation of the Rhine (also Adler I think)

If you think it is a small project, I checked on the size of the Prussians and have the following in that group to paint:

  • 32 battalions of infantry
  • 1 batt of schützen
  • 2 regiments of uhlans
  • 2 regts of dragoons
  • 1 regt of horse jaegers
  • 6 regts of cuirassiers
  • 4 regts of landwehr cavalry
  • 12 batteries (line and horse) of artillery

And of course, as a wargamer, you can never have too may projects 🙂

 

 

 

The Forgotten War Against Napoleon – Review

Gareth Glover’s The Forgotten War Against Napoleon – Conflict in the Mediterranean, published on 26 June 2017 by Pen & Sword Military, ISBN 9781473833951, 265 pages is a survey of the Napoleonic Wars in the Mediterranean over the period 1793 to 1815.

The Mediterranean theatre is one familiar to Napoleonic warfare buffs that but for a few engagements is generally is overlooked.

This book does not have a great deal of detail on any one engagement but rather provides a brief look at 55 or so engagements around the Mediterranean.

I’ll come out of the closet. I am a wargamer and the Napoleonic Wars are a period I keep looking at but never really get a head of steam up on a project – much as I have a deep interest in the uniforms, the ships, the battles, and the campaigns.

Glover has surveyed action around the Mediterranean and he provides between 2 and 7 pages per chapter discussing the various actions of the time. This includes both naval and land actions. Egypt is covered as is Corsica, Naples, Malta, Sicily and such. Each of the chapters provides a reasonable overview of the action and sufficient information to persuade the reader to look deeper.

For example, one action I had not heard about (or at least cannot remember reading about) is Algeciras in 1801. This was an action between the British, lead by Sir James Saumarez (the next book on my reading stack being his biography) and a Franco/Spanish fleet. The British 74s engaged a fleet consisting of 74s and Spanish 112s, capturing or sinking a couple. The following morning the French Formidable beat off the attacks of two British ships of the line and a frigate, so a mixed result for the British.

The book is full of short descriptions (the one above lasting just two pages) but will provide plenty of inspiration for either further reading or, in the case of wargamers, scenarios for future games.

The book finishes with the elimination of the Barbary pirates, using that as the conclusion of the war in the Mediterranean.

For the wargamer, a useful source for information for scenarios in the Napoleonic period. For the general reader of history, a useful summary of what went on in the Mediterranean during the Napoleonic Wars.

WIP – 3 Projects Running – Naturally

Like all good wargamers I am quickly and easily distracted by new, bright shiny objects. As a result, I have three projects on the go at the moment.

Only three projects
Only three projects

Firstly are the 20mm World War 2 figures being painted up for Anthony. Today was spent wrestling with the Platoon 20 6-pdr anti-tank gun. Working out the way it all goes together with no reference works was a wee challenge. I spend some time with Mr Google looking for pictures of completed guns in particular to work out how the shields go on the front and how the trails attach to the rear. Currently the first wheel has been attached.

Then there are the 3mm Napoleonics. An infantry brigade and a cavalry regiment ready for sand and then painting.

Lastly I started with Coastal Forces, commencing with S-26, S-27, S-28 and S-29, German Schnellboot. The boats where cleaned up, machine guns attached to the rear and then added to bases. Bases have had some sea effects added using Woodland Scenics Flex Paste. Painting these will be covered in a later post.

Yep. Back into the groove – too many projects, not enough time (and damn, I super glued my fingers so have no fingerprints. It will be challenging using the bio-metric door locks at the office tomorrow!)

La Haye Sainte – 3D Printable Terrain for Waterloo – Kickstarter

Friend Anthony from Singapore has been experimenting with 3D printing. After a couple of false starts he has learned the ILAR* principle. ILAR was necessary because 15mm, 6mm and 28mm are sizes, not scales. Buildings need scales.

Anthony has it right now and has released the 3D printing plans for La Haye Sainte via a Kickstarter. He notes that:

La Haye Sainte is a complete set of 3D printable .STL files that will allow you to print and assemble a model of the farm at the centre of battlefield at Waterloo.

Using contemporary sketches, watercolours and accounts as the basis, (rather than the current state of the farm), the files will include everything you need to print the complete farm buildings, as they were on Sunday 18th July, 1815, and simulate the fire damage to barn that occurred throughout the battle. Where conjecture and/or doubt remains the files will come in several configurations to allow a variety of solutions, and for each wargamer to decide how they want the farm represented.

The basic farm will look like this:

The plan of La Haye Sainte
The plan of La Haye Sainte

Each of the larger farm buildings (Barn, Stables and Main House) will be made with removable roof sections. Since 3D models are scalable, you can print the model to the limits of your printer, though the files will be delivered optimised for 15mm as shown below. Anthony is a wargamer and has worked hard to make the models both accurate and usable, so the final farm will be table and figure friendly, which means no broken bayonets if you put models “inside” the buildings. All pledge backers will receive a link to his research and the conclusions he made from that research when he created the 3D Models, icluding compromises he had to make to ensure the models remained usable and, perhaps more importantly, printable.

15mm Figures stand ready by the gate
15mm Figures stand ready by the gate

I have seen the model and it is indeed a fine piece that will look the business on the tabletop when printed and painted.

Head on over to Kickstarter – la Haye Sainte 3D Printable Terrain for Waterloo. I can thoroughly recommend this.


* ILAR – It Looks About Right – a naval principle from the 20th century.